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Ihya Ulum al-Din {إحياء علوم الدين} by Imam Ghazali

Written by Imam Ghazali
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The Revival of the Religious Sciences Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn) إحياء علوم الدين is widely regarded as the greatest work of Muslim spirituality.

By Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (450-505 AH) امام ابو حامد الغزالي

The Revival of the Religious Sciences is divided into four parts, each containing ten chapters. Part one deals with knowledge and the requirements of faith—ritual purity, prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimage, recitation of the Qurʾān, and so forth; part two concentrates on people and society—the manners related to eating, marriage, earning a living, and friendship; parts three and four are dedicated to the inner life of the soul and discuss first the vices that people must overcome in themselves and then the virtues that they must strive to achieve.

Arabic Editions


  • Complete Arabic text in HTML format, with Takhrij (Hadith verification) by Hafiz al-Iraqi
  • Printed Editions:
    1. First printed edition: Būlaq, 1269/1853: al-Juzʾ al-awwal (- al-juzʾ al-rābiʻ) min Kitāb iḥyāʾ ʻulūm al-dīn / taʾlīf Abī Ḥāmid Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Ghazzālī. - [Cairo : s.n.], 1269 [1853] - 4 v. in 2 ; 33 cm. - See sample pdf
    2. First India printed edition by offset (ḥajrīya): Iḥyāʾ al-ʻulūm fī arabaʻ mujalladāt / li-hujat al-Islām Muḥammad al-Ghazzālī. [Lucknow] : Niwal Kishūr, 1863. - See sample pdf. bi Ihitimam Muḥammad  ʻAlī Mumtaz: 1280/1863; vol1 and vol2 in pdf facimile. Note that volume 2 is missing the last page.
    3. A facsimile of a standard edition. This is perhaps the best edition; it was published ʿIsa al-Babī al-Ḥalabī wa Awladahu and reprinted by Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Kutub al-ʿArabiyya with an introduction by Dr. Badawi Ṭabana in 1957; this was then known as the Ṭabana edition.
    4. Dār al-Shaʿab, Cairo 19?? edition in 16 parts in 4 volumes: (link)
    5. Modern printed edition with additional ḥadīth verification by A. Tamer in 5 volumes:
    6. Another printed edition in 4 volumes:
    7. Another printed edition in 5(?) volumes:
    8. Another printed edition in 5 volumes: Iḥyāʾ ʻulūm al-dīn - taṣnīf al-Imām Abī Ḥāmid Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Ghazzālī. Wa-bi-dhaylihi kitāb al-Mughnī ʻan ḥaml al-asfār fī al-asfār fī takhrīj mā fī al-Iḥyāʾ min al-akhbār. Miṣr : al-Maktabah al-Tijārīyah al-Kubrá, [195-?]
      • Volume 1 (PDF)
      • Volume 2 (PDF)
      • Volume 4 (PDF)
      • Volume 5 (PDF)contains Taʻrīf al-aḥyāʾ bi-faḍāʾil al-Iḥyāʾ by al-ʻAydarūs, al-Imlāʾ ʻan ishkālāt al-Iḥyāʾ by al-Ghazzāli, and ʻAwārif al-maʻārif by al-Suhrawardī.

Bengali

English

French

German

  • Book 37 - On Intention, Sincerity, and Truth: German translation (pdf) by Hans Bauer, Islamische Ethik. Nach den Orignalquellen übersetzt und erläutert. Heft 1: Über Intention, Reine Absicht und Wahrhaftigkeit. (das 37. Buch von Al-Ġazālī)

Turkish

  • Volume 1 Book 1 - Book of Knolwedge (PDF) 18 mb
  • Volume 1 Book 2 - Foundations of Belief (PDF) 8.76 mb
  • Volume 1 Book 3 - Mysteries of Purity (PDF) 4.76 megs
  • Presented in PDF format and are provided by islamikutuphane.com courtesy of Cagdas HANCI.
  • Introduction
  1. Book I: Book of knowledge.
  2. Book II: Foundations of Belief.
  3. Book III: Mysteries of Purity.
  4. Book IV: Mysteries of Worship.
  5. Book V: Mysteries of Zakat (Charity).
  6. Book VI: Mysteries of Fasting.
  7. Book VII: Mysteries of Pilgrimage.
  8. Book VIII: Etiquettes of Qur'anic Recitation.
  9. Book IX: On Invocations and Supplications.
  10. Book X: On the Arrangements of Litanies and Divisions of the Night Vigil.

    Urdu

     

    Details

    First Quarter: Acts of worship (Rubʿ al-ʿibadāt)

    Second Quarter: Norms of Daily Life (Rubʿ al-ʿadat)

      1. Book 11: On the Manners Related to Eating. English translation by D. Johnson-Davies. (ITS description)
      2. Book 12: On the Etiquette of Marriage:
        • Arabic original (Word file format only!) with ḥadīth verifications.
        • English translation* by the late M. Farah. Also in PDF
        • Another English translation The Proper Conduct of Marriage in Islām (Ādāb an-Nikāḥ) Book Tweleve of Iḥyāʾ ʿUlūm ad-Dīn by M. Holland: Al-Baz Publishing (1998), 99p.
        • Persian translation (from Kimiya-i-Saʿadat) (Persian PDF)
        • French translation (from Algiers) (French PDF)
        • German translation: Hans Bauer: Al-Ghazālī. Das Buch der Ehe. Kitab adabi n-nikah. Das 12. Buch der Iḥyaʾ ʿulum ad-din. Übersetzt und kommentiert von Hans Bauer (Kandern, Spohr, 2005).
      3. Book 13: On the Etiquette of Acquisition and Earning a Livelihood.
      4. Book 14: The Lawful and Prohibited (Complete English translation by Y. T. DeLorenzo, forthcoming from ITS)
      5. Book 15:  On the Duties of Brotherhood. Partial translation by M. Holland. (cover-image) (Arabic edition partial outtakes PDF)
      6. Book 16: On the Etiquette of Seclusion.
      7. Book 17: On the Etiquette of Travel (English translation forthcoming)
      8. Book 18: On Music and Singing. Translated by D. B. MacDonald in three parts (PDF) Part I + II + III, published as Music and Singing by IBT Books, Kuala Lumpur, 2009, 139pp. ISBN: 9789675062230.
      9. Book 19: On Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil. Partial translation in Michael Cook's Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in Islamic Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 427-459.
      10. Book 20: Etiquette of Living and the Prophetic Mannerism: (E-text) rtf (rich text file- word) or (PDF)

    Third Quarter: The Ways to Perdition (Rubʾ al-muhlikat)

      1. Book 21: The Marvels of the Heart.
      1. Book 22: On Disciplining the Soul. English translation by T. J. Winter (ITS description).
      2. Book 23: On Breaking the Two Desires. 
      3. Book 24: Defects of the Tongue
      4. Book 25: Condemnation of Rancor and Envy
      5. Book 26: Condemnation of the World
      6. Book 27: Condemnation of Miserliness and Condemnation of the Love of wealth.
      7. Book 28: Condemnation of Status and Ostentation. Translation of its Arabic Summary.
      8. Book 29: Condemnation of Pride and Conceit. Currently being translated (into English) by M. Rustom (at the University of Toronto).
      9. Book 30: Condemnation of Self-Delusion.
      • Complete English translation by W. J. Skellie (PhD thesis (PDF), Hartford Seminary—published edition (Fons Vitae March 2010). N.B. that Skellie translated the edition that was published by Zabidi in his commentary on the iḥyāʾ which has slight variations from the standard Cairo edition. These have been restored in the Fons Vitae edition.
      • Partial translation in Freedom and Fulfillment by McCarthy (Boston: Twayne, 1980), pp. 363–382;
      • Reprinted (Louisville, KY: Fons Vitae, n.d.), pp. 309–325;
      • Also in Knowledge of God in Classical Sufism by John Renard (New York: Paulist Press, 2004), pp. 298–326.
      • Also published as Wonders of the Heart (Malaysia: IBT, 2007), without the complete translator's introduction and notes; includes an index and publishers note.

    Fourth Quarter: The Ways to Salvation (Rubʿ al-munjiyat)

      1. Book 31: On Repentance. English Translation by M. S. Stern. (E-text) (PDF)
        • Also available in (unedited word file)
        • Part I is now available in html.
        • German translation: Books 31–36: Richard Gramlich, Muhammad al-Gazzālīs Lehre von den Stufen zur Gottesliebe : die Bücher 31-36 seines Hauptwerkes. Eingel., übers. u. komment. von Richard Gramlich (Wiesbaden, Steiner, 1984).
      2. Book 32: On Patience and Thankfulness. English translation by H. T. Littlejohn. (ITS description).
      3. Book 33: On Fear and Hope. English translation by W. McKane (E-text) (PDF). Also in complete edited word file. Also reviewed by Watt in 1964. (pdf)
      4. Book 34: On Poverty and Abstinence. English translation by A. F. Shaker. (ITS description)
      5. Book 35: Faith in Divine Unity and Trust in Divine Providence.
        • English translation by D. Burrell. (Published by Fons Vitae) Review of the English translation (PDF): Journal of Islamic Studies, vol. XV, no. 1 (January 2004); David B. Burrell: Al-Ghazālī: Faith in Divine Unity and Trust in Divine Providence by Ayman Shihadeh, 78-80.
        • German: Hans Wehr, Al-Gazzālī's Buch vom Gottvertrauen. Das 35. Buch des Ihyaʾ ʿulum ad-dīn. Übers. u. mit Einl. u. Anm. vers. v. Hans Wehr. Halle: Niemeyer, 1940.
      6. Book 36: On Love, Longing, Intimacy and Contentment. (English Translation forthcoming, E. Ormsby). For German see above #31.
      7. Book 37: On Intention, Sincerity, and Truth. 
        • English translation by A. F. Shaker (ITS description).
        • German translation by Hans Bauer, Islamische Ethik. Nach den Orignalquellen übersetzt und erläutert. Heft 1: Über Intention, Reine Absicht und Wahrhaftigkeit. (das 37. Buch von Al-Ġazālī) (pdf )
      8. Book 38: On Holding Vigil and Self-Examination. (English translation forthcoming)
      9. Book 39: On Meditation.
      10. Book 40: On the Remembrance of Death and the Afterlife. English translation by T. J. Winter (ITS description)

    Summary

    • There are many summaries of the Iḥyāʾ, though only a handful are published; the others remain in manuscript form. For more information about the summaries of the Iḥyāʾ in Arabic, see this short article (Arabic html).
      • Summary by Aḥmad al-Ghazālī (pdf) Lubab al-iḥyāʾ, published here as Mukhtaṣar Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn. The publisher claims that it is by Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī, though I believe this is incorrect (PDF)
      • The Iḥyāʾ was summarized in a book entitled Minhaj al-qaṣidīn by Ibn al-Jawzī (d. 597 AH/1201 CE), which was further summarized in Mukhtaṣar minhaj al-qaṣidin by Ibn Qudāma al-Maqdisī (d. 620 AH/1341 CE). (link Arabic HTML). This book has been widely distributed and reprinted several times, one of which by Dār al-Khayr, Damascus, 1998; with ḥadīthPDF) also other editions are available: ʿA. Ḥ. M. Darwish edition:PDF, S. ʿĀref edition: PDF, ʿA. Ḥ. ʿA. Ḥalabī edition: PDF, and ʿA. Q. al-ʾArnāouṭ edition: PDF, and Z. Shāwīsh edition: PDF) verification by M. W. Salman and A. A. H. Abulkhair (
      • Tahẓib muʿaẓat al-muʾmineen, Jamal al-Dīn al-Qasimi, n.p. n.d. (PDF)
      • The latest attempt at summarizing the Iḥyāʾ comes from Saliḥ Aḥmad al-Shami, al-Muhaẓab min  iḥyaʾ ʿulum al-dīn, 2 vols. (Beirut: Dār al-Qalam, 1993). Sample translation (link) Also another edtion is available from Dār ibn al-Qayīm: PDF.
      • While others are reworked summaries, such as Saʿid Ḥawwa's attempt: al-Mustakhlaṣ fī tazkiyat al-anfus (Cairo: Dar al-Salam, 1984). (PDF)

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    1 comment

    • Comment Link bernard jilhani Tuesday, 09 October 2012 09:52 posted by bernard jilhani

      how can i have one copy of this book entitle; ihya ulumuddin? allah knows how much i want to have this book but it is hard to find in our country

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